Following are some words that are borrowed from French, Spanish, and German. Forthe most part, these words are regionally restricted to lớn areas where extensive tương tác withnative speakers of one of these languages took place. Identify the language that each ofthe words comes from, as well as the region where you would expect to find the item.coulee, lariat, serape, schnickelfritz, cuartel, pumpernickel, zwieback, levee,rathskeller,pirogueDo you know the meanings of all of the above words?Which ones give you themost difficulty? Why?

Coulee: French (valley, creek)Arapajo grass: Native American (type of grass)Serape: Spanish (pocho, blanket)Schnickelfritz: German (mischievious child)Cuartel: Spanish (barracks)Pumpernickel: German (bread)Zwieback: German (sweet bread)Levee: French (dam)RathskellerPirogueMany words that were borrowed into English long ago are more difficult to identify with regards lớn language of origin; this is because, as opposed to lớn recently borrowed words, such as “taco” or “tsunami,” words lượt thích “levee” are used so commonly in English that they have become engrained as English words. Others were difficult lớn identify the meaning, despite the ease at identifying the language of origin. For example, schnicklefritz sounds German, due khổng lồ common German consonant clusters (schn-) and affixed (-fritz); however, the ties of words lượt thích this to specific communities make it likely for words lượt thích schnicklefritz (and thus it’s meaning(s)) to lớn be rare or absent in many communities.

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Based on the previous discussion, describe the kinds of social interactions andlevels of communities in which you currently participate, ranging from yourspecific communities of practice lớn your affiliation with more broadly basedregional communities. Include at least four levels.Do you consider these variouscommunities lớn be “speech communities”? Why or why not?What is the mostnarrowly defined, & the most broadly defined, community in your experience?

Below is an example of some different levels of communities and social interactions. You may use this mã sản phẩm to make your own!Communities of PracticeFootball teamKnitting circleLaw firmWait staffCommunityHigh schoolRetirement homeManhattan professionalsEl PasoRegionSoutheastMidwestNortheastSouthwestBroad communityTeenage malesThe elderlyNew YorkersMexican Americans

For each of the following examples, state whether the regularization is due to lớn four-partanalogy or leveling.This class is even badder than the last one.Joe helped hisself to more mashed potatoes.He just don’t understand me.Kate brung me a present.The deers ate all of our vegetables in the garden.She weren’t there yesterday.That’s the beautifulest cát I’ve ever seen.

1. 4-part analogy2. 4-part analogy3. Levelling4. 4-part analogy5. 4-part analogy6. Levelling7. 4-part analogy

Unlike in the a‐ prefixing exercise in Chapter 1, not all native English speakers haveintuitions about when be can & cannot be used. Instead, only speakers familiarwith African American English (AAE) seem to lớn have strong linguistic intuitionswith respect to this feature. Before examining the data, you will chạy thử to see if youhave intuitions about this feature.Read the sentences in danh mục A and, for each one, write a sentence explaining howyou would interpret the sentence. Be sure to mention when you think the event ishappening. We will return khổng lồ these sentences later.LIST AMy mom be working.He be absent.The students be talking in class.Next, examine the data in list B. This list contains the results from a forced choice testsimilar to lớn the a‐ prefixing test, where speakers were asked khổng lồ use their linguistic intuitionsto determine which sentence sounded better. The data are from 35 fifth graders inBaltimore, Maryland. All these students were speakers of AAE. Notice that in each casethe students had a definite preference for one sentence over the other. This indicatedthat there is a linguistic pattern guiding their choices. Examine the data lớn figure outwhat determines when a speaker of AAE can use be và when they cannot.LIST B:Number of Baltimore fifth graders who chose each answera. (32) They usually be tired when they come home.b. (3) They be tired right now.a. (31) When we play basketball, she be on my team.b. (4) The girl in the picture be my sister.

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a. (4) James be coming to school right now.b. (31) James always be coming to lớn school.a. (3) My ankle be broken from the fall.b. (32) Sometimes my ears be itching.Write a rule that describes this pattern.Examine your translations of the sentences in menu A. Bởi vì you have linguisticintuitions about this feature?Now that you understand when AAE speakers use be, use your rule to lớn predictwhether or not a speaker of AAE would use the sentences in menu C. Write Y for Yesif the sentence follows the dialect pattern, and N for No if it does not. For the oneswhere be does not fit, explain why.LIST C: Applying the rule___The students always be talking in class.___The students don’t be talking right now.___Sometimes the teacher be early for class.___At the moment the teacher be in the lounge.___My name be Bill.
2.4 Answers

Answers: 1. Y 2. N 3. Y 4. N 5. N

Exercise 2.5

Consider several uses of the khung done in some vernacular dialects of English, asillustrated in the following sentences.They done their homework last night.They done what they said they would do.She was done with her homework.Are you done with your homework yet?They done ate all of the food in the refrigerator.They done finished all of their homework.They done did their homework last night.They done done their homework last night.What kinds of verb forms (for example, past tense) are covered by the size done?Do you think that the use of done in sentences like They done ate all of the food inthe refrigerator involves a unique, grammaticalized use of done as an auxiliary orhelping verb? Why or why not? If so, what vì chưng you think its distinctive meaning is?

1. Past tense verb 2. Past tense verb 3. Past participle 4. Past tense verb 5. Helping verb 6. Helping verb 7. Helping verb 8. Helping verb và Past participle In numbers 5-8, the use of “done” involves a unique, grammaticalized use of done as an auxiliary/helping verb, which serves to indicate completion of the verb following it (e.g. “ate” or “finished”). Number 8 has both the traditional và grammaticalized versions of the verb “done”.

Think about some of the local activities or situations that might phối apart the localneighborhood, community, or region where you live.

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Are there any terms thatwould be known by local residents but not necessarily by those outside the area?For example, are there particular lexical items that might denote cultural activitiesor other aspects of the lifestyles typical of the community?How might these termscontribute to lớn the notion that every community seems khổng lồ have its own dialect.